Prisoner Self-Help

tools for healing, changing, growing

Archive for the tag “PTSD”

The Butterfly Hug

by Masha Bennett www.practicalhappiness.co.uk

EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitisation & Reprocessing) is a complex and powerful therapy that is used to treat Post Traumatic Stress, anxiety and some other mental health issues. Unfortunately it can only be safely used by specially trained mental health professionals and at the moment is rarely available in prisons. However, the so-called Butterfly Hug is one small tool in EMDR toolbox that can safely be used by anyone (even children) for self-help. You can try the Butterfly Hug to soothe yourself when you feel anxious, uncertain or fearful. Similarly to the full EMDR procedure, this tool employs bi-lateral stimulation, i.e. stimulation of the two sides of our brain, which is thought to help process trauma and calm anxious feelings.

This is how to do the Butterfly Hug. Whilst sitting up with your back straight, cross your arms across your chest, as if you are giving yourself a hug, with your right hand resting on your left upper arm, and your left hand on your right upper arm. (It doesn’t matter which arm is on top.) Observe any feelings of anxiety, fear or upset in yourself, and tap your hands on your arms alternately – left, right, left, right – at whatever speed is comfortable for you.

After tapping for a minute or two, stop and take a deep breath. Notice how you are feeling – are you a little calmer, somewhat relaxed, a bit more comfortable? Just notice whatever feelings or sensations you are experiencing, and continue tapping until you feel as calm as you would like to be.

butterfly_compressed

Butterfly is an ancient symbol of transformation

If you don’t notice any change, try tapping for a little bit longer and you may feel it then. You can do the Butterfly Hug for as long as you like, and as many times a day as you like. You can do it on your own, together with a friend or with a group of people.

This method was created by EMDR therapists who worked with children in the aftermath a natural disaster in Mexico City in 1998.

The Butterfly Hug is a useful tool but it will not work for everyone every time. If for any reason you begin to feel worse, please stop tapping and try calming yourself down by using any other methods that are available to you.

Another simple way to do bi-lateral stimulation (which should have a similar effect to the Butterfly Hug) is to pass a small ball or even a pebble from one hand to another repeatedly – it appears that almost any type of repeated left-right stimulation of our body is likely to have a balancing and soothing effect.

Masha Bennett is a UKCP registered psychotherapist, EMDR therapist and a trainer of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques). She has worked for a number of years within the UK criminal justice system, including running a drug rehabilitation programme in a women’s prison, and currently combines work in the National Health Service with her private therapy practice. Masha teaches EFT, trauma awareness and self-help tools to professionals and general public across Europe, Asia and Middle East. Her website is  www.practicalhappiness.co.uk.

Useful links and references

EMDR Association UK & Ireland

EMDR Europe

EMDR International Association

Nancy Napier’s website

Advertisements

Prisoners and Psychological Trauma

by Masha Bennett www.practicalhappiness.co.uk

Psychological trauma occurs when a person experiences a traumatic event, which usually involves a threat (or perceived threat) of death or serious injury to themselves or others. The common emotions the individual may feel in these circumstances involve fear, helplessness, shock or horror.

Traumatic experiences could include: road traffic accident, natural disaster, rape, assault, robbery, childhood abuse, combat situations, domestic violence, terrorist attack, torture, diagnosis of a terminal illness, traumatic bereavement and others.

Some people can feel traumatised following events that do not directly threaten life but are nevertheless shocking and deeply upsetting, for example, being made redundant, finding out that their partner is having an affair, having their home re-possessed, losing a beloved pet, being bullied, humiliated, criticised or blamed. Whist these events may not satisfy the “official criteria” for trauma, it is important to acknowledge that they could have a profound and lasting effect on our lives and that sometimes we may need help to deal with these “mini-traumas” – especially if we experience a number of these in our lifetime.

In the context of criminal justice, being arrested, charged, put on trial, incarcerated are potentially traumatic experiences that could exacerbate any existing trauma-related condition. Prisoner’s family members can be left traumatised directly or indirectly. Many prison staff are affected by incidents such as suicide attempts, assaults and other events that are not an uncommon part of prison life.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is diagnosed if the person who has experienced the traumatic event, continues to suffer the following symptoms after a month or longer after the event:

(a) Intrusive thoughts, flashbacks or nightmares, where the traumatic event is re-experienced; sometimes re-enacting the traumatic situation.

(b) Avoidance of people, situations or things that might bring on their intrusive symptoms (this may include self-medicating with alcohol or drugs in order to numb the feelings)

(c) Hyperarousal – physiological signs of increased emotional arousal, hypervigilance (constantly looking out for danger), increased anxiety or irritability,  increased startle response.

An article by Claudia Baker, PTSD and Criminal Behaviour, quotes figures from research (presumably conducted in the US), indicating that among incarcerated populations PTSD has been found in approximately 48% of females and 30% of male prisoners, which does not surprise me (in fact I am guessing that these figures may be under-estimated). On the other hand, a review of literature by UK psychologists Goff et al.  in 2007 quotes figures of between 4 and 21% PTSD in prison population –  which to me seems to be an unrealistically low estimate, though the authors do acknowledge that women are disproportionately affected.

If my own experience of working with prisoners and hearing their life stories is represetnative, a very significant proportion of them have suffered not just a single traumatic event, but multiple, often chronic trauma, typically going back to childhood, and whilst it is important to acknowledge that traumatic experiences in themselves would not necessarily lead all sufferers to break the law, Claudia Baker’s article gives some examples of circumstances when trauma can be directly or indirectly linked to a criminal offence.

Effective treatment for trauma and post-traumatic stress is rarely available in prisons, and incarceration itself will often exacerbate the distressing symptoms. Current research evidence favours treatments such as CBT (Cognitive Behaviour Therapy) and EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitisation & Reprocessing), and evidence is also building up supporting the use of approaches such as EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), creative therapies (art, music, sandplay, writing, drama therapy), body-oriented psychotherapies (e.g. Sensorimotor therapy, Somatic Experiencing) and certain forms of hypnotherapy. In my clinical experience, each individual is unique and requires a unique approach, with no single technique or therapy being a solution for all.

Masha Bennett is a UKCP registered psychotherapist and a trainer of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques). She has worked for a number of years within the criminal justice system, including running a drug rehabilitation programme in a women’s prison, and currently combines work in the UK National Health Service with her private therapy and training practice. Masha teaches EFT, trauma awareness and self-help tools to professionals and general public across 10 countries in Europe, Asia and Middle East. Her website is  www.practicalhappiness.co.uk.

Some sources of information and support

UK Trauma Group

Combat Stress (UK)

The Long Boat Home – directory of UK therapists offering reduced-cost treatment to ex-servicemen and women

National Center for PTSD (US)

Iraq Vets Stress Project (US)

David Baldwin’s Trauma Pages

Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture

Gift From Within – International organisations for victims of trauma and victimisation

Post Navigation